Norman E. Fenton

Orcid: 0000-0003-2924-0510

  • Queen Mary University of London, UK

According to our database1, Norman E. Fenton authored at least 130 papers between 1984 and 2024.

Collaborative distances:
  • Dijkstra number2 of four.
  • Erdős number3 of four.



In proceedings 
PhD thesis 


Online presence:



A hybrid Bayesian network for medical device risk assessment and management.
Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf., January, 2024

Stacking Factorizing Partitioned Expressions in Hybrid Bayesian Network Models.
CoRR, 2024

Approach and Method for Bayesian Network Modelling: The Case for Pregnancy Outcomes in England and Wales.
Proceedings of the 17th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies, 2024

Categorical Updating in a Bayesian Propensity Problem.
Cogn. Sci., July, 2023

Lawmaps: enabling legal AI development through visualisation of the implicit structure of legislation and lawyerly process.
Artif. Intell. Law, March, 2023

Smart automotive technology adherence to the law: (de)constructing road rules for autonomous system development, verification and safety.
Int. J. Law Inf. Technol., 2022

Region-based estimation of the partition functions for hybrid Bayesian network models.
Int. J. Intell. Syst., 2022

Product safety idioms: a method for building causal Bayesian networks for product safety and risk assessment.
CoRR, 2022

The Chaotic State of UK Drone Regulation.
CoRR, 2022

The Self-Driving Car: Crossroads at the Bleeding Edge of Artificial Intelligence and Law.
CoRR, 2022

How do some Bayesian Network machine learned graphs compare to causal knowledge?
CoRR, 2021

Current review and next steps for artificial intelligence in multiple sclerosis risk research.
Comput. Biol. Medicine, 2021

A comprehensive scoping review of Bayesian networks in healthcare: Past, present and future.
Artif. Intell. Medicine, 2021

Bayesian networks in healthcare: What is preventing their adoption?
Artif. Intell. Medicine, 2021

A Study of Using Bethe/Kikuchi Approximation for Learning Directed Graphic Models.
IEEE Access, 2021

Categorical Belief Updating Under Uncertainty.
Proceedings of the 43rd Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, 2021

Development of Bayesian Network for Multiple Sclerosis Risk Factor Interaction Analysis.
Proceedings of the Computational Intelligence Methods for Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, 2021

Analyzing the Simonshaven Case Using Bayesian Networks.
Top. Cogn. Sci., 2020

Medical idioms for clinical Bayesian network development.
J. Biomed. Informatics, 2020

Improved High Dimensional Discrete Bayesian Network Inference using Triplet Region Construction.
J. Artif. Intell. Res., 2020

Towards standardisation of evidence-based clinical care process specifications.
Health Informatics J., 2020

Product risk assessment: a Bayesian network approach.
CoRR, 2020

The role of collider bias in understanding statistics on racially biased policing.
CoRR, 2020

Bluetooth Smartphone Apps: Are they the most private and effective solution for COVID-19 contact tracing?
CoRR, 2020

Public Authorities as Defendants: Using Bayesian Networks to determine the Likelihood of Success for Negligence claims in the wake of Oakden.
CoRR, 2020

A Bayesian network approach for cybersecurity risk assessment implementing and extending the FAIR model.
Comput. Secur., 2020

Bayesian networks in healthcare: Distribution by medical condition.
Artif. Intell. Medicine, 2020

The Book of Why: The New Science of Cause and Effect, Judea Pearl, Dana Mackenzie. Basic Books (2018).
Artif. Intell., 2020

Data Visualisation in Midwifery: The Challenge of Seeing what Datasets Hide.
Proceedings of the Digital Personalized Health and Medicine - Proceedings of MIE 2020, Medical Informatics Europe, Geneva, Switzerland, April 28, 2020

Incorporating Clinical Decisions into Standardised Caremaps.
Proceedings of the 8th IEEE International Conference on Healthcare Informatics, 2020

Real-time Online Probabilistic Medical Computation using Bayesian Networks.
Proceedings of the 8th IEEE International Conference on Healthcare Informatics, 2020

Managing Knowledge in Computational Models for Global Food, Nutrition and Health Technologies.
Proceedings of the IEEE Global Humanitarian Technology Conference, 2020

Addressing the Practical Limitations of Noisy-OR Using Conditional Inter-Causal Anti-Correlation with Ranked Nodes.
IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng., 2019

An Extension to the Noisy-OR Function to Resolve the 'Explaining Away' Deficiency for Practical Bayesian Network Problems.
IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng., 2019

Simpson's Paradox and the implications for medical trials.
CoRR, 2019

Modelling competing legal arguments using Bayesian model comparison and averaging.
Artif. Intell. Law, 2019

Nested Sets and Natural Frequencies.
Proceedings of the 41th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, 2019

Standardising Clinical Caremaps: Model, Method and Graphical Notation for Caremap Specification.
Proceedings of the Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies, 2019

Clinical Caremap Development: How Can Caremaps Standardise Care When They Are Not Standardised?
Proceedings of the 12th International Joint Conference on Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies (BIOSTEC 2019), 2019

An improved method for solving Hybrid Influence Diagrams.
Int. J. Approx. Reason., 2018

Expected Value of Partial Perfect Information in Hybrid Models Using Dynamic Discretization.
IEEE Access, 2018

Updating Prior Beliefs Based on Ambiguous Evidence.
Proceedings of the 40th Annual Meeting of the Cognitive Science Society, 2018

Realistic Synthetic Data Generation: The ATEN Framework.
Proceedings of the Biomedical Engineering Systems and Technologies, 2018

Towards smart-data: Improving predictive accuracy in long-term football team performance.
Knowl. Based Syst., 2017

The opportunity prior: a simple and practical solution to the prior probability problem for legal cases.
Proceedings of the 16th edition of the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law, 2017

How to model mutually exclusive events based on independent causal pathways in Bayesian network models.
Knowl. Based Syst., 2016

When and where to transfer for Bayesian network parameter learning.
Expert Syst. Appl., 2016

A Bayesian network framework for project cost, benefit and risk analysis with an agricultural development case study.
Expert Syst. Appl., 2016

Integrating expert knowledge with data in Bayesian networks: Preserving data-driven expectations when the expert variables remain unobserved.
Expert Syst. Appl., 2016

An empirical study of Bayesian network parameter learning with monotonic influence constraints.
Decis. Support Syst., 2016

Region Based Approximation for High Dimensional Bayesian Network Models.
CoRR, 2016

Value of information analysis for interventional and counterfactual Bayesian networks in forensic medical sciences.
Artif. Intell. Medicine, 2016

From complex questionnaire and interviewing data to intelligent Bayesian network models for medical decision support.
Artif. Intell. Medicine, 2016

Improving Predictive Accuracy Using Smart-Data rather than Big-Data: A Case Study of Soccer Teams' Evolving Performance.
Proceedings of the 13th UAI Bayesian Modeling Applications Workshop (BMAW 2016) co-located with the 32nd Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence (UAI 2016), 2016

Bayesian Torrent Classification by File Name and Size Only.
Proceedings of the Probabilistic Graphical Models - Eighth International Conference, 2016

Risk assessment and risk management of violent reoffending among prisoners.
Expert Syst. Appl., 2015

Probabilistic Graphical Models Parameter Learning with Transferred Prior and Constraints.
Proceedings of the Thirty-First Conference on Uncertainty in Artificial Intelligence, 2015

Causal analysis for attributing responsibility in legal cases.
Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law, 2015

Decision Support Software for Probabilistic Risk Assessment Using Bayesian Networks.
IEEE Softw., 2014

Not just data: A method for improving prediction with knowledge.
J. Biomed. Informatics, 2014

Bayesian network approach to multinomial parameter learning using data and expert judgments.
Int. J. Approx. Reason., 2014

Calculating and understanding the value of any type of match evidence when there are potential testing errors.
Artif. Intell. Law, 2014

An Extended MPL-C Model for Bayesian Network Parameter Learning with Exterior Constraints.
Proceedings of the Probabilistic Graphical Models - 7th European Workshop, 2014

Profiting from an inefficient association football gambling market: Prediction, risk and uncertainty using Bayesian networks.
Knowl. Based Syst., 2013

A General Structure for Legal Arguments About Evidence Using Bayesian Networks.
Cogn. Sci., 2013

Legal idioms: a framework for evidential reasoning.
Argument Comput., 2013

Predicting Latent Variables with Knowledge and Data: A Case Study in Trauma Care.
Proceedings of the 2013 UAI Application Workshops: Big Data meet Complex Models and Models for Spatial, 2013

Incorporating Expert Judgement into Bayesian Network Machine Learning.
Proceedings of the IJCAI 2013, 2013

Optimizing the Calculation of Conditional Probability Tables in Hybrid Bayesian Networks Using Binary Factorization.
IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng., 2012

pi-football: A Bayesian network model for forecasting Association Football match outcomes.
Knowl. Based Syst., 2012

Improved reliability modeling using Bayesian networks and dynamic discretization.
Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf., 2010

Comparing risks of alternative medical diagnosis using Bayesian arguments.
J. Biomed. Informatics, 2010

Predicting Project Velocity in XP Using a Learning Dynamic Bayesian Network Model.
IEEE Trans. Software Eng., 2009

Modelling dependable systems using hybrid Bayesian networks.
Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf., 2008

On the effectiveness of early life cycle defect prediction with Bayesian Nets.
Empir. Softw. Eng., 2008

Using Ranked Nodes to Model Qualitative Judgments in Bayesian Networks.
IEEE Trans. Knowl. Data Eng., 2007

Predicting software defects in varying development lifecycles using Bayesian nets.
Inf. Softw. Technol., 2007

Project Data Incorporating Qualitative Factors for Improved Software Defect Prediction.
Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Predictor Models in Software Engineering, 2007

Predicting football results using Bayesian nets and other machine learning techniques.
Knowl. Based Syst., 2006

Risk and confidence analysis for fuzzy multicriteria decision making.
Knowl. Based Syst., 2006

Improved Bayesian Networks for Software Project Risk Assessment Using Dynamic Discretisation.
Proceedings of the Software Engineering Techniques: Design for Quality, 2006

Modeling Dependable Systems using Hybrid Bayesian Networks.
Proceedings of the The First International Conference on Availability, 2006

Automated population of causal models for improved software risk assessment.
Proceedings of the 20th IEEE/ACM International Conference on Automated Software Engineering (ASE 2005), 2005

Making Resource Decisions for Software Projects.
Proceedings of the 26th International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE 2004), 2004

Software Measurement: Uncertainty and Causal Modeling.
IEEE Softw., 2002

Probability modelling for software quality control.
J. Appl. Non Class. Logics, 2002

Making decisions: using Bayesian nets and MCDA.
Knowl. Based Syst., 2001

Viewpoint Article: Conducting and Presenting Empirical Software Engineering.
Empir. Softw. Eng., 2001

Probabilistic Modelling for Software Quality Control.
Proceedings of the Symbolic and Quantitative Approaches to Reasoning with Uncertainty, 2001

Quantitative Analysis of Faults and Failures in a Complex Software System.
IEEE Trans. Software Eng., 2000

Software metrics: roadmap.
Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on on Software Engineering, 2000

A Critique of Software Defect Prediction Models.
IEEE Trans. Software Eng., 1999

Software metrics: successes, failures and new directions.
J. Syst. Softw., 1999

Effects of structure on the comprehensivility of formal specifications.
IEE Proc. Softw., 1999

A Strategy for Improving Safety Related Software Engineering Standards.
IEEE Trans. Software Eng., 1998

Assesing dependability of safety critical systems using diverse evidence.
IEE Proc. Softw., 1998

Reply to: Comments on "Toward a Framework for Software Measurement Validation".
IEEE Trans. Software Eng., 1997

Implementing Effective Software Metrics Programs.
IEEE Softw., 1997

Software quality programmes: a snapshot of theory versus reality.
Softw. Qual. J., 1996

Point-Counterpoint: Do Standards Improve Quality?
IEEE Softw., 1996

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Z: The Claims Made About CICS and Where We Go From Here.
J. Syst. Softw., 1996

Applying Bayesian Belief Networks to System Dependability Assessment.
Proceedings of the Safety-Critical Systems: The Convergence of High Tech and Human Factors, 1996

Software metrics - a practical and rigorous approach (2. ed.).
International Thomson, ISBN: 978-1-85032-275-7, 1996

Towards a Framework for Software Measurement Validation.
IEEE Trans. Software Eng., 1995

Software Measurement: A Necessary Scientific Basis.
IEEE Trans. Software Eng., 1994

Software Engineering Metrics, Volume 1: Measures and Validations, by Martin Sheppard, McGraw-Hill, 1993 (Book Review).
Softw. Test. Verification Reliab., 1994

Science and Substance: A Challenge to Software Engineers.
IEEE Softw., 1994

Evaluating Software Engineering Standards.
Computer, 1994

How effective are software engineering methods?
J. Syst. Softw., 1993

Towards Operational Measures of Computer Security.
J. Comput. Secur., 1993

Software Quality: Theory and Management, by Alan C. Gillies, Chapman and Hall, 1992 (Book Review).
Softw. Test. Verification Reliab., 1992

The Cleanroom Approach to Quality Software Development, by Michael Dyer, Wiley, 1992 (Book Review).
Softw. Test. Verification Reliab., 1992

When a software measure is not a measure.
Softw. Eng. J., 1992

Session 2 Summary: Objectives and Context of Measurement or Experimentation.
Proceedings of the Experimental Software Engineering Issues: Critical Assessment and Future Directions, 1992

Position Paper.
Proceedings of the Experimental Software Engineering Issues: Critical Assessment and Future Directions, 1992

Validating Software Measures.
Softw. Test. Verification Reliab., 1991

Software Complexity: Measures and Methods, by Horst Zuse, Published by Walter de Gruyter, 1990 (Book Review).
Softw. Test. Verification Reliab., 1991

Program Structures: Some New Characterisations.
J. Comput. Syst. Sci., 1991

Software Measurement: Why a Formal Approach?
Proceedings of the Formal Aspects of Measurement, 1991

Moving from Philosophy to Practice in Software Measurement.
Proceedings of the Formal Aspects of Measurement, 1991

Software metrics - a rigorous approach.
Chapman and Hall, ISBN: 978-0-412-40440-5, 1991

Deriving structurally based software measures.
J. Syst. Softw., 1990

Software measurement: A conceptual framework.
J. Syst. Softw., 1990

A philosophy for software measurement.
J. Syst. Softw., 1990

Software metrics: theory, tools and validation.
Softw. Eng. J., 1990

Axiomatic Approach to Software Metrication Through Program Decomposition.
Comput. J., 1986

A Generalised Mathematical Theory of Structured Programming.
Theor. Comput. Sci., 1985

A rigorous approach to structural analysis and metrication of software.
Softw. Microsystems, 1985

Structured programming: a tutorial guide.
Softw. Microsystems, 1984

Matroid Representation of Projective Spaces.
Eur. J. Comb., 1984